Monday, January 31, 2011

NOtes SCieNsce chaPter 3

transpiration=water evaporate cooprate through stoma


a) temprature
temprature higher
Rate of transpiration higher

b) Air movement
air movement higher
Rate of transpiration higher

c) Humidity
humidity higher
Rate of transpiration lower

d) light intesity
light intesity higher
Rate of transpiration higher

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

ANTM 7: Interview with CariDee — “I’m So Happy They Picked The Blonde Package!”

She’s here, she’s blonde, and she’s definitely on top! CariDee English, a photographer from North Dakota, was crowned the winner of America’s Next Top Model. In addition to a $100,000 contract with cosmetics giant CoverGirl, CariDee’s prize includes a contract with Elite Model Management, as well as a cover and six-page fashion spread in Seventeen magazine. But you knew that, faithful viewer. Now that she’s had time to get used to her life-changing prize package, CariDee took time out of her busy schedule to share all the love she’s feeling with her FORT fans.

Hi CariDee! Congratulations!

Fans of Reality TV, yes! Hello! Thank you! I’m so excited to talk to you, I love the website — I love, love, love, love, love the website! Trust me, I was there, like, five times a day.

How does it feel to be in the winner’s shoes?

Amazing – I’m sorry, I’m having lunch, so forgive me for chomping. Amazing, amazing. It’s such a blessing. It’s a crazy whirlwind and I want to hold onto it as long as I can.

Do you realize that you’re the first blonde winner?

Oh yeah, girl! (chewing) Sorry, again – food in my mouth. I know I’m the first blonde winner, and I’m so happy they picked the blonde package, they picked me. (laughs) I’m definitely excited and it takes it to a whole other level with the merging of the networks. Yes, I’m so excited.

Did having commercial appeal work for you on the show?

I think it definitely it was great for me, because a lot of American modeling is commercial, it is print. You’re out there, you’re talking, you’re “spokes”. I feel like it’s very friendly; I just try to be myself and have everyone relate to me in some way or another.

Can you tell us, how did you come to be on the show?

I tried out – I got the application from the Internet, and I drove to the Cities, and it was a process of elimination from there.

You say that you wanted to model when you were younger, but you had a skin condition that kept you from trying. You certainly don’t seem like you have any inhibitions or doubts about your looks these days. Where did you find that confidence?

I think I made up for my skin disease and everything with my confidence. I hate [psoriasis], I do – I hate it with a passion – but I had to accept it. Once I accepted it, I did a lot better. I should tell you that naturally, I’m just really out there; I’m outgoing and goofy. Even though I have it, I don’t let it have me, you know?

What was your favorite photoshoot?

Oh, my goodness. All of them? (laughs) A great day for everybody where there was great energy was the Celebrity Photo shoot. That was a great vibe. Everyone was just loving it, it was just fun, we were all different characters. Another favorite photo shoot – I can’t really say one! It was all of them. The skydiving was fun, it was crazy. It was fun. I really liked the Circus Freaks – I liked how it came out. I was totally out there, doing different things, switching it up. I was feeling really good right then. I remember feeling really confident.

On the water shoot, you got hypothermia – this was all explored on the show. But what sticks out to me is that you got a lecture from Tyra that you need to tell them when you’re suffering, and yet, all the girls surely know that if they complain they will hear about it when they’re in front of the judges.

Exactly, yes.

What did you think of being told that you should have said something sooner?

Yeah, it was a catch-22. I could have quit, and if I would have quit, I was a quitter. And if I stuck with it and just stayed it out — which is what I did. What happened was that Ken Mok, a producer, was like, “Get her out of the water, get her out of the water!” And I wasn’t allowed back in. And I know that when you’re going through the first stages of hypothermia, you don’t realize it. So I didn’t realize anything was happening, I just thought I was really cold. Also, the medicine I take for my psoriasis lowers my immune system. My immune system is so much lower than the average person, that cold really hit me hard. When it came time to do the pictures I really focused, but it was definitely a challenge for me.

Was that the most difficult part of the experience?

The water, wobbly runway – whatever the heck that was. That was insane! That was just too much for me. (laughs)That was scary. It was frustrating, it was … just scary.

Have you and Nigel Barker made up, or does he still have a stick up his ass?

Oh, no, no, no — Nigel is great! Nigel is great, he’s so nice. We actually had a dinner that they never aired, and I really, really like Nigel. When I made the joke, actually, what they didn’t show was that he joked right back, instantly right back, and everybody was laughing. The show made an issue out it just for the viewers’ eyes. And also for him to make me realize that you can’t be doing that in other situations — which I never would; like, I would never go into a client situation and just say that out of nowhere. But you just feel like you know him, and he jokes back. The moral of the story is that if you mess with the bull, you get the horns. (laughs)

So you’ve learned to take the “class, dignity and respect” route. Good for you!

You were portrayed on the show as having a wild and crazy personality. Is that accurate in real life?

Definitely! I’m wild and crazy, but I’m not like, (crazy voice) wild one second and then (quiet voice)really down the next. It’s just who I am, I have a lot of energy in me. And I think that’s very, very important to have in the modeling industry, because you’re going constantly. You’re on, you’re going, you have to think of new things, you have to be innovative, you have to be creative. It’s an important characteristic to have if you want to succeed in the long run.

You’re eating lunch during interviews…

(laughs) Yeah, exactly! I wouldn’t have it any other way.

Come on, everyone says they get a bad edit. You’re saying you’re like that in real life?

(laughs)Well, there are certain things that went on, like, they made it look like I was happy one minute and falling apart the next. It wasn’t really like that. They didn’t show a lot of like hanging around the house and just being chill. I loved a lot of people, I got close to a lot of the girls, and had great conversations. They just showed highs and lows of me, which is frustrating, because there were definitely something else with me. I can be very chill and I feel like Jaeda was really funny, I wish they had shown that more. Megg had more sides to her than just “rock and roll” and she was awesome. Monique was pretty accurate, though. (laughs)

I understand you have a boyfriend at home, right?

Yes, I do.

Did you have any explaining to do about that Spanish guy?

We’ve been going for two years, but when I was filming, we took a break because we were having troubles like any other couple, especially, you know, that two-year thing. And we just took a break before I left, and we just recently got back together about a month ago, officially. On November 27th, actually. It’s good to step away from something if you really want it. We were always in contact, and friends, and everything, but I think it was best for our relationship to be apart during all that. And also, I could concentrate more on the competition, not missing him and not so involved in him, that helped too.

The reason I ask is that people have said it was cheating on your part, and I wanted to give you that chance to address that.

Oh no, absolutely not. That’s why there was never a big deal about it on the show, because it wasn’t a big deal. I’m glad to clear the air on this, definitely. The editing made a mistake, like early on, saying “CariDee’s boyfriend” – they knew we were having troubles and were apart. They knew he was dear to me and I still talked to him and everything, because he is my best friend first and foremost, but yeah, we weren’t together during it, and that’s what the big misunderstanding was.

Who were you close to in the house?

I wish I could answer that, I really do. I knew that question was going to come up and I don’t have a certain person, but I can’t answer because I really loved everyone, honestly. It hit me in different ways. They are all so beautiful, they were all so great. I loved Megg, she made me feel so good. When she walked into the room, everything just lifted. All of your worries just kind of melted, you know? She was wonderful, a beautiful person. A.J., she was a great person to talk serious with. Anchal, beautiful, was so fun to just have fun with, to laugh, and giggle, and just be goofy with. She used to dare people to do things. And Michelle was the person who would put other people first before she would ever think of herself. A completely selfless person, just awesome. Amanda was so sweet, she was shy, but she was sweet. Eugena—oh God, loved Eugena. Love, love, love Eugena. We got really close during the time in Barcelona because…I don’t know! I just loved her. She was just so funny to me. I wish they would have showed more, but the things she would do were just so real, it’s just funny the way they came off.

I really got close to everybody. Megan, so sweet, so sweet and so kind, and now she’s doing great! I saw her on the cover of a magazine, and it was beautiful and smart. She was very reserved, but very sincere and just loved to have fun. And even Christian was an awesome person. I only got to meet her for a little bit, but she would always laugh at the things I would say, and I told her, “It’s so fun that we’re getting close,” and stuff like that. I just got close to everyone at one point or another. It was so hard to see them leaving, you know? Oh my God, Brooke – wise beyond her years, and the most intelligent girl her age I’ve ever met, and probably the whole competition.

You didn’t mention Melrose, what can you say about her?

Melrose was a good person. She was – I still don’t really know how she is, but she was a great competitor, let me tell you. If I was going to lose, which I wasn’t – no wait. If I was going to win, which I did, I didn’t want to win in a way that implied it was given to me. She gave me a run for my money. She was a hard competitor, and she’s great, she’s smart, she’s motivated. There’s a lot of things that she embodies that I wish I did, as far as just like – I mean, I’m driven, but she’s – there’s a smartness to her that is so inspiring.

As far as that little showdown on the final runway challenge with Melrose – did she think you stepped on her dress on purpose?

No. I just know her. It’s the fact that she just loves fashion, and the dress got a hole in it. She was upset because she has a passion for clothes, you know. It was just intense.

It’s not like you were going home with the dresses, so why did she take it so personally?

Well, I would never, ever, ever ruin a designer’s dress. It was only by accident. Those trains were four feet long, and it twisted around me when I turned really quickly, and my heel got caught in it. It’s a live show, that’s the thing, she had to understand that. It’s a live show and things happen, you’ve just got to roll with it, keep going, and not let it affect you. Of course I was worried that the designers were going to be mad at me, but I apologized.

Do you think she was just trying to psyche you out?

No, she psyched herself out. She didn’t even bother me. I’ve been in theater and acting before, and I know that anything can go on at any moment, and if it does you do not let it show. The show must go on.

Were you surprised that you received so much criticism from the judges for the final runway show?

Yeah, they gave me good points, too. A lot of people expect a model going on this show to automatically be great, but it’s a learning process. Like me, photos are easy for me. It just comes naturally. Walking? It’s good for me but I was so nervous, that I forgot to breathe. I was just like, (breathing in noisily) so intense and so nervous. And the competition itself, I just forgot to have a good time. Now that the pressure’s off, on a runway I’ll totally just have a lot of fun. I’ll show everything because I’m not thinking, “this is SO important.” There’s a whole different motive behind it.

What do you think of Tyra after this experience? What can you tell us about her that we wouldn’t necessarily know from watching her on TV?

She is so smart and so full of knowledge that’s even beyond her comprehension. She affects people to the core. It’s a lingering effect that she leaves on people. I owe everything to her. She’s amazing. If it wasn’t for her, I wouldn’t even talking to you right now, or having these experiences. I owe my life and my career to her, and for that I will always be thankful. People don’t realize that she’s only human, too. They’ll criticize and say, “why’d you wear that?” or “why did you look like that?” – well, she’s only human! That’s what’s made her go so far, is that she takes these things gracefully. She makes mistakes, or she does well, and she’s not so full of herself to the point of being worried about being out there. She’s a real person, and that’s what’s gotten her so far. She’s great with people. She’s got her own show, her talk show, she’s one of the top women in entertainment right now and she’s 34. 35 this week. It’s amazing.

Can you tell us about your future plans?

Thank God I’m a CoverGirl! One of the best things about this is that not only am I an Elite model, but I’m with CoverGirl. I love CoverGirl, I’ve loved their products since I was a little girl, and honestly, I’m not just saying that. I’ve really loved their products ever since I was young, and to be representing them and have them behind my name, you know? CariDee, CoverGirl model. It’s amazing. I appreciate everything that is coming with that. I can’t wait. We’re shooting our commercial in Australia next week. I’m just so excited, and I’m so grateful. I feel like I’ve been through so much. I hope that somebody saw it and I motivated them to do the same thing, too. I could have taken the easy way out. I still wanted to model, but with my psoriasis no one even gave me the chance. It was my incentive to do it.

Is there anything else you’d like the posters on FORT to know?

I love all the fans you have there. Tell them thank you for posting and the support and everything. It definitely would make my day. Whenever I was feeling down I would read there, and people on there, I’ll never meet them, but they made me feel so good, and I appreciate that so much. So, thank you so much and God bless!

FORT congratulates CariDee, winner of the seventh cycle of America’s Next Top Model! Thanks to CW for another great season of interviews.

taken frohere

Tuesday, May 25, 2010

themes of robinson crusoe


Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
The Ambivalence of Mastery

Crusoe’s success in mastering his situation, overcoming his obstacles, and controlling his environment shows the condition of mastery in a positive light, at least at the beginning of the novel. Crusoe lands in an inhospitable environment and makes it his home. His taming and domestication of wild goats and parrots with Crusoe as their master illustrates his newfound control. Moreover, Crusoe’s mastery over nature makes him a master of his fate and of himself. Early in the novel, he frequently blames himself for disobeying his father’s advice or blames the destiny that drove him to sea. But in the later part of the novel, Crusoe stops viewing himself as a passive victim and strikes a new note of self-determination. In building a home for himself on the island, he finds that he is master of his life—he suffers a hard fate and still finds prosperity.

But this theme of mastery becomes more complex and less positive after Friday’s arrival, when the idea of mastery comes to apply more to unfair relationships between humans. In Chapter XXIII, Crusoe teaches Friday the word “[m]aster” even before teaching him “yes” and “no,” and indeed he lets him “know that was to be [Crusoe’s] name.” Crusoe never entertains the idea of considering Friday a friend or equal—for some reason, superiority comes instinctively to him. We further question Crusoe’s right to be called “[m]aster” when he later refers to himself as “king” over the natives and Europeans, who are his “subjects.” In short, while Crusoe seems praiseworthy in mastering his fate, the praiseworthiness of his mastery over his fellow humans is more doubtful. Defoe explores the link between the two in his depiction of the colonial mind.

The Necessity of Repentance

Crusoe’s experiences constitute not simply an adventure story in which thrilling things happen, but also a moral tale illustrating the right and wrong ways to live one’s life. This moral and religious dimension of the tale is indicated in the Preface, which states that Crusoe’s story is being published to instruct others in God’s wisdom, and one vital part of this wisdom is the importance of repenting one’s sins. While it is important to be grateful for God’s miracles, as Crusoe is when his grain sprouts, it is not enough simply to express gratitude or even to pray to God, as Crusoe does several times with few results. Crusoe needs repentance most, as he learns from the fiery angelic figure that comes to him during a feverish hallucination and says, “Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die.” Crusoe believes that his major sin is his rebellious behavior toward his father, which he refers to as his “original sin,” akin to Adam and Eve’s first disobedience of God. This biblical reference also suggests that Crusoe’s exile from civilization represents Adam and Eve’s expulsion from Eden.

For Crusoe, repentance consists of acknowledging his wretchedness and his absolute dependence on the Lord. This admission marks a turning point in Crusoe’s spiritual consciousness, and is almost a born-again experience for him. After repentance, he complains much less about his sad fate and views the island more positively. Later, when Crusoe is rescued and his fortune restored, he compares himself to Job, who also regained divine favor. Ironically, this view of the necessity of repentance ends up justifying sin: Crusoe may never have learned to repent if he had never sinfully disobeyed his father in the first place. Thus, as powerful as the theme of repentance is in the novel, it is nevertheless complex and ambiguous.

The Importance of Self-Awareness

Crusoe’s arrival on the island does not make him revert to a brute existence controlled by animal instincts, and, unlike animals, he remains conscious of himself at all times. Indeed, his island existence actually deepens his self-awareness as he withdraws from the external social world and turns inward. The idea that the individual must keep a careful reckoning of the state of his own soul is a key point in the Presbyterian doctrine that Defoe took seriously all his life. We see that in his normal day-to-day activities, Crusoe keeps accounts of himself enthusiastically and in various ways. For example, it is significant that Crusoe’s makeshift calendar does not simply mark the passing of days, but instead more egocentrically marks the days he has spent on the island: it is about him, a sort of self-conscious or autobiographical calendar with him at its center. Similarly, Crusoe obsessively keeps a journal to record his daily activities, even when they amount to nothing more than finding a few pieces of wood on the beach or waiting inside while it rains. Crusoe feels the importance of staying aware of his situation at all times. We can also sense Crusoe’s impulse toward self-awareness in the fact that he teaches his parrot to say the words, “Poor Robin Crusoe. . . . Where have you been?” This sort of self-examining thought is natural for anyone alone on a desert island, but it is given a strange intensity when we recall that Crusoe has spent months teaching the bird to say it back to him. Crusoe teaches nature itself to voice his own self-awareness.

taken from here

Themes for Robinson Crusoe



Robinson Crusoe must overcome his fear in order to survive his long ordeal on the deserted island. The trial by fear begins when he runs about like a madman, scared of every shadow, and sleeps in a tree with a weapon: "fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence in God." He quickly realizes that he must recover his wits and reason if he is to survive.

At several points in the narrative, Crusoe is almost overwhelmed by his fear of the unknown. It propels him to colonize the island, securing his shelter and becoming self-sufficient. His ability to funnel his fear into productivity and creativity allows him to survive under extreme conditions.

Crusoe masters his fear when he faces the ultimate challenge — the devil. Investigating a cave, he is met by a pair of eyes. At first scared, he realizes that he can confront this enemy just like he has met every other challenge on the island. "He that was afraid to see the devil, was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone."

With that, he rushes in to confront the devil and discovers a dying goat. He has passed his trial. Had he not faced his fears, he would have run away in full belief that the devil lived in that cave. Instead, he investigates and confronts his fear.

Human Condition

Robinson Crusoe is a meditation on the human condition, and an argument for challenging traditional notions about that condition. Finding himself alone in a deserted island, Crusoe struggles to maintain reason, order, and civilization. His "original sin" is his rejection of a conventional life. When he leaves England for a life on the high seas, he refuses to be "satisfied with the station wherein God and Nature hath placed" him.

Crusoe struggles with — and eventually triumphs over — nature. The book suggests that this struggle is at the heart of human nature: man is on earth to triumph and gain profit from nature. Any profit makes sense in this view of the world, whether that means getting just one plank out of a huge tree or building a boat too heavy to bring to the water. Once Crusoe is able to overcome his fear and subdue nature is rewarded handsomely.


Consistent with Defoe's writings on economics, money is an important theme in Robinson Crusoe. At the beginning of the narrative, Crusoe details how much money he has, what he does with it, and what he gains by his actions.

On the island, money loses all value. Crusoe has to find another way to measure his worth. While rummaging through a ship for salvage he laments aloud at the sight of some money, "O Drug! what are thou good for." At that point he realizes that just one knife is worth more than money. Usefulness is the key to evaluation of worth.

Crusoe's hope of returning to England is symbolized by these tokens of civilization — on the island, the money is only a reminder of his old life and he treasures it as a memento. In all of his other endeavors he freely admits his success or failure. But as a merchant, he knows that though separated from the world now, he can only reconnect with it if he has money. Once he returns to London, his old reliance on money returns.


Industrialization is defined here as a process whereby humans channel the forces of nature into the production and manufacture of goods for their economic consumption. This industrialization is Crusoe's occupation, according to his cultural background and his religion. He immediately sets out to be productive and self-sufficient on the island.

By the time of Robinson Crusoe, most villages were experiencing labor specialization. People began to buy bread instead of baking it. Thus Crusoe has to relearn many of these arts to survive. With practice, Crusoe is able to increase the level of industrialization on his island.

Crusoe has a few implements with which he is able to reconstruct a semblance of civilization as well as create more advanced technology. While building his house, he notes that every task is exhausting. In brief, he praises the idea of "division of labor" as he describes cutting timber out of trees, bringing the wood from the trees to the construction site, and then constructing his shelter. He soon devises labor-saving devices, thus increasing his efficiency and productivity.

The necessity of a sharp ax leads Crusoe to invent his own foot-powered sharpener. He has "no notion of a kiln," but he manages to fire pottery. He needs a mill for grinding his grain, but not finding a proper stone, he settles for a block of hard wood. The entire process of baking his own bread spurs a realization of how wonderful the state of human technology is.

People take the labor behind the necessities of life for granted when such items can be easily purchased in the market. Crusoe is not suggesting that people return to a world of self-sufficient households. Instead, as he goes about his Herculean tasks, like creating a simple shelf in his house, he comments that a carpenter could have finished the two-day job in an hour. Thus he appreciates the process of specialization that helps make industrialization so successful

taken from here

Tuesday, May 11, 2010

ere analogy examples and great analogies explained so you can use them as tools in your writing. There is nothing like an example of analogy to help you in your songwriting.

An analogy is a comparison between two different things so you can point out something about how they are similar. The comparison often is done point by point.

It often is done to explain something not well known by describing something that is known so you can generalize the information from what you already understand to the new thing.

Its a way to provide insight by suggesting existing similarities suggest that there are even more points that are similar.

Using analogies helps the reader to see the logic in your example, perhaps create a visual awareness of what you are talking about and helps them verbalize and understand your suggestion. It transfers information from one particular subject to another.

It does this by inferring the similarity. It does not prove the similarity such as making deductions. What you generally demonstrate is how "a" and "b" is similar somehow to the relationship between "c" and "d".

Here are some more specific example of analogy:

1. glove is to hand as monitor is to computer

2. surfs are to a king as earth is to the sun

Antonyms: are words with the opposite meaning to another word.

Synonyms: (Grouped by Similarity of Meaning) of verb

taken from here